这是可以提出的最佳算法。

def get_primes(n):
    numbers = set(range(n, 1, -1))
    primes = []
    while numbers:
        p = numbers.pop()
        primes.append(p)
        numbers.difference_update(set(range(p*2, n+1, p)))
    return primes

>>> timeit.Timer(stmt='get_primes.get_primes(1000000)', setup='import   get_primes').timeit(1)
1.1499958793645562

它可更快吗?

这段代码有一个缺陷︰ 由于numbers无序的集,就不能保证,该numbers.pop()将从集合中移除的最低数量。然而,它的工作原理 (至少对我来说) 对于某些输入数字︰

>>> sum(get_primes(2000000))
142913828922L
#That's the correct sum of all numbers below 2 million
>>> 529 in get_primes(1000)
False
>>> 529 in get_primes(530)
True
2010-01-14 23:40:27
问题评论:

问题代码 sniplet 速度会大大加快,如果数字声明类似数字 = 组 (范围 (n,2,-2))。但不能打败 sundaram3。感谢您的问题。

如果可能存在答案中各个函数的 Python 3 版本,就好。

肯定没有库要这样做,所以我们不需要我们自己滚 > xkcd 承诺 Python 非常简单,只import antigravity不是那里像require 'prime'; Prime.take(10) (拼音)?

请注意,您不需要向difference_update作为参数传递一组中。您可以简单地执行numbers.difference_update(xrange(p*2, N+1, p)) ,将时间缩短几毫秒内关闭您最起码的时间。

@ColonelPanic 点滴所以我 Py3 更新github.com/jaredks/pyprimesieve并添加到 PyPi。很肯定比这些但不是数量级-更像 ~ 5 倍的最佳的 numpy 版本速度更快。

回答:

警告︰由于硬件或 Python 版本中的差异, timeit的结果可能会有所不同。

下面是它比较多个实现的脚本︰

许多感谢stephan对于将 sieve_wheel_30 带到引起我的注意。贷方将转到罗伯特威廉 Hanks的 primesfrom2to、 primesfrom3to、 rwh_primes、 rwh_primes1 和 rwh_primes2。

Python 方法进行测试,与 psyco,纯为 n = 1000000, rwh_primes1已快被测试。

+---------------------+-------+
| Method              | ms    |
+---------------------+-------+
| rwh_primes1         | 43.0  |
| sieveOfAtkin        | 46.4  |
| rwh_primes          | 57.4  |
| sieve_wheel_30      | 63.0  |
| rwh_primes2         | 67.8  |    
| sieveOfEratosthenes | 147.0 |
| ambi_sieve_plain    | 152.0 |
| sundaram3           | 194.0 |
+---------------------+-------+

Python 方法进行测试,而无需 psyco,纯为 n = 1000000, rwh_primes2是最快。

+---------------------+-------+
| Method              | ms    |
+---------------------+-------+
| rwh_primes2         | 68.1  |
| rwh_primes1         | 93.7  |
| rwh_primes          | 94.6  |
| sieve_wheel_30      | 97.4  |
| sieveOfEratosthenes | 178.0 |
| ambi_sieve_plain    | 286.0 |
| sieveOfAtkin        | 314.0 |
| sundaram3           | 416.0 |
+---------------------+-------+

所有方法的测试,使 numpy,对于 n = 1000000, primesfrom2to已快被测试。

+---------------------+-------+
| Method              | ms    |
+---------------------+-------+
| primesfrom2to       | 15.9  |
| primesfrom3to       | 18.4  |
| ambi_sieve          | 29.3  |
+---------------------+-------+

排练时间被衡量使用命令︰

python -mtimeit -s"import primes" "primes.{method}(1000000)"

使用{method}替换为每个方法的名称。

primes.py:

#!/usr/bin/env python
import psyco; psyco.full()
from math import sqrt, ceil
import numpy as np

def rwh_primes(n):
    # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2068372/fastest-way-to-list-all-primes-below-n-in-python/3035188#3035188
    """ Returns  a list of primes < n """
    sieve = [True] * n
    for i in xrange(3,int(n**0.5)+1,2):
        if sieve[i]:
            sieve[i*i::2*i]=[False]*((n-i*i-1)/(2*i)+1)
    return [2] + [i for i in xrange(3,n,2) if sieve[i]]

def rwh_primes1(n):
    # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2068372/fastest-way-to-list-all-primes-below-n-in-python/3035188#3035188
    """ Returns  a list of primes < n """
    sieve = [True] * (n/2)
    for i in xrange(3,int(n**0.5)+1,2):
        if sieve[i/2]:
            sieve[i*i/2::i] = [False] * ((n-i*i-1)/(2*i)+1)
    return [2] + [2*i+1 for i in xrange(1,n/2) if sieve[i]]

def rwh_primes2(n):
    # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2068372/fastest-way-to-list-all-primes-below-n-in-python/3035188#3035188
    """ Input n>=6, Returns a list of primes, 2 <= p < n """
    correction = (n%6>1)
    n = {0:n,1:n-1,2:n+4,3:n+3,4:n+2,5:n+1}[n%6]
    sieve = [True] * (n/3)
    sieve[0] = False
    for i in xrange(int(n**0.5)/3+1):
      if sieve[i]:
        k=3*i+1|1
        sieve[      ((k*k)/3)      ::2*k]=[False]*((n/6-(k*k)/6-1)/k+1)
        sieve[(k*k+4*k-2*k*(i&1))/3::2*k]=[False]*((n/6-(k*k+4*k-2*k*(i&1))/6-1)/k+1)
    return [2,3] + [3*i+1|1 for i in xrange(1,n/3-correction) if sieve[i]]

def sieve_wheel_30(N):
    # http://zerovolt.com/?p=88
    ''' Returns a list of primes <= N using wheel criterion 2*3*5 = 30

Copyright 2009 by zerovolt.com
This code is free for non-commercial purposes, in which case you can just leave this comment as a credit for my work.
If you need this code for commercial purposes, please contact me by sending an email to: info [at] zerovolt [dot] com.'''
    __smallp = ( 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59,
    61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139,
    149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 173, 179, 181, 191, 193, 197, 199, 211, 223, 227,
    229, 233, 239, 241, 251, 257, 263, 269, 271, 277, 281, 283, 293, 307, 311,
    313, 317, 331, 337, 347, 349, 353, 359, 367, 373, 379, 383, 389, 397, 401,
    409, 419, 421, 431, 433, 439, 443, 449, 457, 461, 463, 467, 479, 487, 491,
    499, 503, 509, 521, 523, 541, 547, 557, 563, 569, 571, 577, 587, 593, 599,
    601, 607, 613, 617, 619, 631, 641, 643, 647, 653, 659, 661, 673, 677, 683,
    691, 701, 709, 719, 727, 733, 739, 743, 751, 757, 761, 769, 773, 787, 797,
    809, 811, 821, 823, 827, 829, 839, 853, 857, 859, 863, 877, 881, 883, 887,
    907, 911, 919, 929, 937, 941, 947, 953, 967, 971, 977, 983, 991, 997)

    wheel = (2, 3, 5)
    const = 30
    if N < 2:
        return []
    if N <= const:
        pos = 0
        while __smallp[pos] <= N:
            pos += 1
        return list(__smallp[:pos])
    # make the offsets list
    offsets = (7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 1)
    # prepare the list
    p = [2, 3, 5]
    dim = 2 + N // const
    tk1  = [True] * dim
    tk7  = [True] * dim
    tk11 = [True] * dim
    tk13 = [True] * dim
    tk17 = [True] * dim
    tk19 = [True] * dim
    tk23 = [True] * dim
    tk29 = [True] * dim
    tk1[0] = False
    # help dictionary d
    # d[a , b] = c  ==> if I want to find the smallest useful multiple of (30*pos)+a
    # on tkc, then I need the index given by the product of [(30*pos)+a][(30*pos)+b]
    # in general. If b < a, I need [(30*pos)+a][(30*(pos+1))+b]
    d = {}
    for x in offsets:
        for y in offsets:
            res = (x*y) % const
            if res in offsets:
                d[(x, res)] = y
    # another help dictionary: gives tkx calling tmptk[x]
    tmptk = {1:tk1, 7:tk7, 11:tk11, 13:tk13, 17:tk17, 19:tk19, 23:tk23, 29:tk29}
    pos, prime, lastadded, stop = 0, 0, 0, int(ceil(sqrt(N)))
    # inner functions definition
    def del_mult(tk, start, step):
        for k in xrange(start, len(tk), step):
            tk[k] = False
    # end of inner functions definition
    cpos = const * pos
    while prime < stop:
        # 30k + 7
        if tk7[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 7
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 7
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(7, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 7 else (prime * (const * (pos + 1 if tmp < 7 else 0) + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
        # 30k + 11
        if tk11[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 11
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 11
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(11, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 11 else (prime * (const * (pos + 1 if tmp < 11 else 0) + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
        # 30k + 13
        if tk13[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 13
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 13
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(13, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 13 else (prime * (const * (pos + 1 if tmp < 13 else 0) + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
        # 30k + 17
        if tk17[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 17
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 17
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(17, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 17 else (prime * (const * (pos + 1 if tmp < 17 else 0) + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
        # 30k + 19
        if tk19[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 19
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 19
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(19, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 19 else (prime * (const * (pos + 1 if tmp < 19 else 0) + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
        # 30k + 23
        if tk23[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 23
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 23
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(23, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 23 else (prime * (const * (pos + 1 if tmp < 23 else 0) + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
        # 30k + 29
        if tk29[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 29
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 29
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(29, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 29 else (prime * (const * (pos + 1 if tmp < 29 else 0) + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
        # now we go back to top tk1, so we need to increase pos by 1
        pos += 1
        cpos = const * pos
        # 30k + 1
        if tk1[pos]:
            prime = cpos + 1
            p.append(prime)
            lastadded = 1
            for off in offsets:
                tmp = d[(1, off)]
                start = (pos + prime) if off == 1 else (prime * (const * pos + tmp) )//const
                del_mult(tmptk[off], start, prime)
    # time to add remaining primes
    # if lastadded == 1, remove last element and start adding them from tk1
    # this way we don't need an "if" within the last while
    if lastadded == 1:
        p.pop()
    # now complete for every other possible prime
    while pos < len(tk1):
        cpos = const * pos
        if tk1[pos]: p.append(cpos + 1)
        if tk7[pos]: p.append(cpos + 7)
        if tk11[pos]: p.append(cpos + 11)
        if tk13[pos]: p.append(cpos + 13)
        if tk17[pos]: p.append(cpos + 17)
        if tk19[pos]: p.append(cpos + 19)
        if tk23[pos]: p.append(cpos + 23)
        if tk29[pos]: p.append(cpos + 29)
        pos += 1
    # remove exceeding if present
    pos = len(p) - 1
    while p[pos] > N:
        pos -= 1
    if pos < len(p) - 1:
        del p[pos+1:]
    # return p list
    return p

def sieveOfEratosthenes(n):
    """sieveOfEratosthenes(n): return the list of the primes < n."""
    # Code from: <dickinsm@gmail.com>, Nov 30 2006
    # http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.python/msg/f1f10ced88c68c2d
    if n <= 2:
        return []
    sieve = range(3, n, 2)
    top = len(sieve)
    for si in sieve:
        if si:
            bottom = (si*si - 3) // 2
            if bottom >= top:
                break
            sieve[bottom::si] = [0] * -((bottom - top) // si)
    return [2] + [el for el in sieve if el]

def sieveOfAtkin(end):
    """sieveOfAtkin(end): return a list of all the prime numbers <end
    using the Sieve of Atkin."""
    # Code by Steve Krenzel, <Sgk284@gmail.com>, improved
    # Code: https://web.archive.org/web/20080324064651/http://krenzel.info/?p=83
    # Info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sieve_of_Atkin
    assert end > 0
    lng = ((end-1) // 2)
    sieve = [False] * (lng + 1)

    x_max, x2, xd = int(sqrt((end-1)/4.0)), 0, 4
    for xd in xrange(4, 8*x_max + 2, 8):
        x2 += xd
        y_max = int(sqrt(end-x2))
        n, n_diff = x2 + y_max*y_max, (y_max << 1) - 1
        if not (n & 1):
            n -= n_diff
            n_diff -= 2
        for d in xrange((n_diff - 1) << 1, -1, -8):
            m = n % 12
            if m == 1 or m == 5:
                m = n >> 1
                sieve[m] = not sieve[m]
            n -= d

    x_max, x2, xd = int(sqrt((end-1) / 3.0)), 0, 3
    for xd in xrange(3, 6 * x_max + 2, 6):
        x2 += xd
        y_max = int(sqrt(end-x2))
        n, n_diff = x2 + y_max*y_max, (y_max << 1) - 1
        if not(n & 1):
            n -= n_diff
            n_diff -= 2
        for d in xrange((n_diff - 1) << 1, -1, -8):
            if n % 12 == 7:
                m = n >> 1
                sieve[m] = not sieve[m]
            n -= d

    x_max, y_min, x2, xd = int((2 + sqrt(4-8*(1-end)))/4), -1, 0, 3
    for x in xrange(1, x_max + 1):
        x2 += xd
        xd += 6
        if x2 >= end: y_min = (((int(ceil(sqrt(x2 - end))) - 1) << 1) - 2) << 1
        n, n_diff = ((x*x + x) << 1) - 1, (((x-1) << 1) - 2) << 1
        for d in xrange(n_diff, y_min, -8):
            if n % 12 == 11:
                m = n >> 1
                sieve[m] = not sieve[m]
            n += d

    primes = [2, 3]
    if end <= 3:
        return primes[:max(0,end-2)]

    for n in xrange(5 >> 1, (int(sqrt(end))+1) >> 1):
        if sieve[n]:
            primes.append((n << 1) + 1)
            aux = (n << 1) + 1
            aux *= aux
            for k in xrange(aux, end, 2 * aux):
                sieve[k >> 1] = False

    s  = int(sqrt(end)) + 1
    if s  % 2 == 0:
        s += 1
    primes.extend([i for i in xrange(s, end, 2) if sieve[i >> 1]])

    return primes

def ambi_sieve_plain(n):
    s = range(3, n, 2)
    for m in xrange(3, int(n**0.5)+1, 2): 
        if s[(m-3)/2]: 
            for t in xrange((m*m-3)/2,(n>>1)-1,m):
                s[t]=0
    return [2]+[t for t in s if t>0]

def sundaram3(max_n):
    # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2068372/fastest-way-to-list-all-primes-below-n-in-python/2073279#2073279
    numbers = range(3, max_n+1, 2)
    half = (max_n)//2
    initial = 4

    for step in xrange(3, max_n+1, 2):
        for i in xrange(initial, half, step):
            numbers[i-1] = 0
        initial += 2*(step+1)

        if initial > half:
            return [2] + filter(None, numbers)

################################################################################
# Using Numpy:
def ambi_sieve(n):
    # http://tommih.blogspot.com/2009/04/fast-prime-number-generator.html
    s = np.arange(3, n, 2)
    for m in xrange(3, int(n ** 0.5)+1, 2): 
        if s[(m-3)/2]: 
            s[(m*m-3)/2::m]=0
    return np.r_[2, s[s>0]]

def primesfrom3to(n):
    # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2068372/fastest-way-to-list-all-primes-below-n-in-python/3035188#3035188
    """ Returns a array of primes, p < n """
    assert n>=2
    sieve = np.ones(n/2, dtype=np.bool)
    for i in xrange(3,int(n**0.5)+1,2):
        if sieve[i/2]:
            sieve[i*i/2::i] = False
    return np.r_[2, 2*np.nonzero(sieve)[0][1::]+1]    

def primesfrom2to(n):
    # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2068372/fastest-way-to-list-all-primes-below-n-in-python/3035188#3035188
    """ Input n>=6, Returns a array of primes, 2 <= p < n """
    sieve = np.ones(n/3 + (n%6==2), dtype=np.bool)
    sieve[0] = False
    for i in xrange(int(n**0.5)/3+1):
        if sieve[i]:
            k=3*i+1|1
            sieve[      ((k*k)/3)      ::2*k] = False
            sieve[(k*k+4*k-2*k*(i&1))/3::2*k] = False
    return np.r_[2,3,((3*np.nonzero(sieve)[0]+1)|1)]

if __name__=='__main__':
    import itertools
    import sys

    def test(f1,f2,num):
        print('Testing {f1} and {f2} return same results'.format(
            f1=f1.func_name,
            f2=f2.func_name))
        if not all([a==b for a,b in itertools.izip_longest(f1(num),f2(num))]):
            sys.exit("Error: %s(%s) != %s(%s)"%(f1.func_name,num,f2.func_name,num))

    n=1000000
    test(sieveOfAtkin,sieveOfEratosthenes,n)
    test(sieveOfAtkin,ambi_sieve,n)
    test(sieveOfAtkin,ambi_sieve_plain,n) 
    test(sieveOfAtkin,sundaram3,n)
    test(sieveOfAtkin,sieve_wheel_30,n)
    test(sieveOfAtkin,primesfrom3to,n)
    test(sieveOfAtkin,primesfrom2to,n)
    test(sieveOfAtkin,rwh_primes,n)
    test(sieveOfAtkin,rwh_primes1,n)         
    test(sieveOfAtkin,rwh_primes2,n)

运行该脚本测试所有实现都提供相同的结果。

这并不是纯 Python,但到目前为止是最快的版本。谢谢 !

如果您感兴趣的非纯 Python 代码,然后您应检查gmpy --它提供了很好的坚壁,通过其mpz类型的next_prime方法支持。

刚才的正确性,该代码示例应具有import numpy as np

@Kimvais: true,感谢。

int(n ** 0.5)应该是int(math.ceil(n ** 0.5))int(n ** 0.5) + 1ambi_sieve(10)否则提供错误的答案。

(坚壁生成器处理和包括基准) 的相关的问题︰
加快在 Python 中的 bitstring/位操作吗?

更快和更 memory-wise 纯 Python 代码︰

def primes(n):
    """ Returns  a list of primes < n """
    sieve = [True] * n
    for i in xrange(3,int(n**0.5)+1,2):
        if sieve[i]:
            sieve[i*i::2*i]=[False]*((n-i*i-1)/(2*i)+1)
    return [2] + [i for i in xrange(3,n,2) if sieve[i]]

或从半筛法

def primes1(n):
    """ Returns  a list of primes < n """
    sieve = [True] * (n/2)
    for i in xrange(3,int(n**0.5)+1,2):
        if sieve[i/2]:
            sieve[i*i/2::i] = [False] * ((n-i*i-1)/(2*i)+1)
    return [2] + [2*i+1 for i in xrange(1,n/2) if sieve[i]]

更快和更 memory-wise numpy 代码︰

import numpy
def primesfrom3to(n):
    """ Returns a array of primes, 3 <= p < n """
    sieve = numpy.ones(n/2, dtype=numpy.bool)
    for i in xrange(3,int(n**0.5)+1,2):
        if sieve[i/2]:
            sieve[i*i/2::i] = False
    return 2*numpy.nonzero(sieve)[0][1::]+1

筛法的第三个开始更快变体︰

import numpy
def primesfrom2to(n):
    """ Input n>=6, Returns a array of primes, 2 <= p < n """
    sieve = numpy.ones(n/3 + (n%6==2), dtype=numpy.bool)
    for i in xrange(1,int(n**0.5)/3+1):
        if sieve[i]:
            k=3*i+1|1
            sieve[       k*k/3     ::2*k] = False
            sieve[k*(k-2*(i&1)+4)/3::2*k] = False
    return numpy.r_[2,3,((3*numpy.nonzero(sieve)[0][1:]+1)|1)]

将上面的代码 (硬到代码) 纯 python 版本︰

def primes2(n):
    """ Input n>=6, Returns a list of primes, 2 <= p < n """
    n, correction = n-n%6+6, 2-(n%6>1)
    sieve = [True] * (n/3)
    for i in xrange(1,int(n**0.5)/3+1):
      if sieve[i]:
        k=3*i+1|1
        sieve[      k*k/3      ::2*k] = [False] * ((n/6-k*k/6-1)/k+1)
        sieve[k*(k-2*(i&1)+4)/3::2*k] = [False] * ((n/6-k*(k-2*(i&1)+4)/6-1)/k+1)
    return [2,3] + [3*i+1|1 for i in xrange(1,n/3-correction) if sieve[i]]

遗憾的是纯 python 不采用更简单、 更快的 numpy 方式进行分配,并调用在循环内的 len () [False]*len(sieve[((k*k)/3)::2*k]) 速度太慢。因此我不得不 improvise 更正输入 (并避免更多的数学),执行一些极端 (和麻烦) 的数学魔术。
个人 i 认为很可惜该 numpy (这广泛) 不属于 python 标准库 (2 年后释放 python 3, 和无 numpy 兼容性),而在语法和速度方面的改进似乎完全被忽视的 python 开发。

+ 1: primesfrom3to (19.6ms) 是 signifcantly 比ambi_sieve (29.4ms)。可怕。感谢你分享。PS.由于 2 是质数,会不会考虑更改返回值为numpy.r_[2, 2*np.nonzero(sieve)[0][1::]+1]?

i 使用代码的方式,可以根据需要更改的测试,很可能与校正时间会几乎相同的 1e6 (为 1e7 到 1e9 应更快),同时,请电话我最佳纯 python 代码到计算机中,以便 1e6 和 1e7 在 primes(n) 和 primes1(n) 的进行比较。

@Robert︰ 相比我的答案中的列表中添加您的实现。primes1primesfrom3to出现在最前面 !所示的排名是 n = 1e6。使用 n 不变的排名顺序 = 1e7。

我已经添加了primes2primesfrom2to的方法测试我 post 过程中。但二者都上之前最快的显著改进。很好 !

我看不到任何大的新的primesfrom2to() ideone.com/5YJkw的切实加速 (性能比较是在文件的末尾)

有是一个非常巧妙的样本,从 Python 手册此处— 上建议最快版本的 URL 是︰

import itertools
def erat2( ):
    D = {  }
    yield 2
    for q in itertools.islice(itertools.count(3), 0, None, 2):
        p = D.pop(q, None)
        if p is None:
            D[q*q] = q
            yield q
        else:
            x = p + q
            while x in D or not (x&1):
                x += p
            D[x] = p

因此将会得到

def get_primes_erat(n):
  return list(itertools.takewhile(lambda p: p<n, erat2()))

测量在 shell 提示符下 (如我更愿意做) 使用此代码在 pri.py 中,我观察︰

$ python2.5 -mtimeit -s'import pri' 'pri.get_primes(1000000)'
10 loops, best of 3: 1.69 sec per loop
$ python2.5 -mtimeit -s'import pri' 'pri.get_primes_erat(1000000)'
10 loops, best of 3: 673 msec per loop

因此它看起来像菜谱的解决方案是通过倍。

哇 !这就是真正的快速。感谢您,Alex 的超级 !:-)

@jbochi,请别客气,但不要看一看该 URL,包括之旅︰ 花了十个我们能够共同细化到目前为止,包括 Python 性能,其中不乏像 Tim Peters 和 Raymond Hettinger (因为我编辑打印的手册,但在编写代码方面我贡献已等同于其他人,我编写食谱的最后文本)-代码的最后被真正细微精确调节的代码,并不让人吃惊 !-)

@Alex︰ 知道您的代码"只有"两次快我,使我非常骄傲然后。:)该 URL 也是非常有趣的阅读。再次表示感谢。

并可使其更快的次要更改︰ 请参阅stackoverflow.com/questions/2211990/...

...而且它可以做还快与其他 ~1.2x-1.3x 加速,从 o (n) 到 O(sqrt(n)) 的内存需求量急剧减少,并有力地时间复杂性,提高通过推迟直到其方块添加对 dict 坚壁出现在输入中。此处对其进行测试.

使用Sundaram 的筛法,认为我破坏纯 Python 的记录︰

def sundaram3(max_n):
    numbers = range(3, max_n+1, 2)
    half = (max_n)//2
    initial = 4

    for step in xrange(3, max_n+1, 2):
        for i in xrange(initial, half, step):
            numbers[i-1] = 0
        initial += 2*(step+1)

        if initial > half:
            return [2] + filter(None, numbers)

Comparasion:

C:USERS>python -m timeit -n10 -s "import get_primes" "get_primes.get_primes_erat(1000000)"
10 loops, best of 3: 710 msec per loop

C:USERS>python -m timeit -n10 -s "import get_primes" "get_primes.daniel_sieve_2(1000000)"
10 loops, best of 3: 435 msec per loop

C:USERS>python -m timeit -n10 -s "import get_primes" "get_primes.sundaram3(1000000)"
10 loops, best of 3: 327 msec per loop

我没有碰到跨 Sundaram 的筛之前-很酷 !

我设法加快函数约 20%,加上"0 = 0"顶部的函数,然后将您的筛选器在 lambda 替换为"zero.__sub__"。不至今在世界上,但有点快:) 代码

@truppo︰ 感谢您的意见 !我刚意识到,而不原始的函数传递None工作,它是比zero.__sub__更快

您知道,是否您通过sundaram3(9)将返回[2, 3, 5, 7, 9]它看起来与此多-也许整个过程 — — 奇数 (即使它们不是质数)

它有一个问题︰ sundaram3(7071) 虽然不是主要包括 7071

该算法速度快,但它有一个严重缺陷︰

>>> sorted(get_primes(530))
[2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73,
79, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163,
167, 173, 179, 181, 191, 193, 197, 199, 211, 223, 227, 229, 233, 239, 241, 251,
257, 263, 269, 271, 277, 281, 283, 293, 307, 311, 313, 317, 331, 337, 347, 349,
353, 359, 367, 373, 379, 383, 389, 397, 401, 409, 419, 421, 431, 433, 439, 443,
449, 457, 461, 463, 467, 479, 487, 491, 499, 503, 509, 521, 523, 527, 529]
>>> 17*31
527
>>> 23*23
529

您认为, numbers.pop()将返回最小的数字在一组,但这无法保证。都是无序和pop()中移除并返回任意元素,因此它不能用于选择下一步主要从剩余的数字。

感谢您指出的问题...我使用的列表并调到集以加快速度,但我没有意识到它破坏了该算法。

内容来源于Stack Overflow Fastest way to list all primes below N
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Fastest way to list all primes below N

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